1. The harmful effects of smoking on reproductive health of women
Secondhand smoke causes a lot of harm to the reproductive health of women with serious consequences, especially birth rates in women who smoke are less than 30% compared to women who did not smoke. There are several reasons why people smoke are usually infertile.
Damage to the oocyte: Smoking will cause direct damage or even destroy follicles, thus causing infertility. Nicotine will prevent the protective layer formation is called the shell. This shell prevents other sperm from entering the ovum after a sperm enters the ovum, prevent multiple sperm. The embryo which has many sperm is more susceptible die during development phase or spontaneous miscarriage.
Hormone abnormalities: Women smoke will change hormone levels include estrogen and hormones stimulating follicle. And ovulation of ovarian does not occur normally in smokers that is a major cause of infertility.
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Fallopian tube dysfunction: Smoking increases the concentration of hormones epinephrine and / or vasopressine; two hormones raise blood pressure and increase heart rate. These are normal substances in the body, but when these substances are excreted too much in women smoke they stimulate increased mobile wave of tubal make embryos into the uterus soon so the process of embryo into the uterine does not happen. The result is that the embryo was spontaneous miscarriage. However in some women smoke, the process of moving in tub is slow leading fetus develop in wrong place in fallopian tube or elsewhere outside of the womb. The frequency of ectopic pregnancy in those who smoke is higher 2, 2- 4 times than non-smokers. Smoking also reduces the immune status leading to infection of the fallopian tubes cause of infertility is higher in smokers.
Spontaneous miscarriage: In women who smoke risk of miscarriage is higher from 1.5 to 3.2 than non-smokers. Women who smoke get miscarriage every year about 19,000 to 141,000.
Limiting effect of infertility treatment: In women who smoke not only get infertility but also less effective in the treatment of infertility. Especially in patients who smoke are less successful in in vitro fertilization and the process of gamete transport in the fallopian tubes. And for women who are pregnant by in vitro fertilization are easy to be miscarriage.
Secondhand smoke is harmful for pregnant women! You still not care about health and lives of children, laughing, challenges and “get sucked” in front of that woman?
2. Complications due to tobacco in pregnant women
– CO and nicotine is the main substance causing adverse effects on the embryo.
– hemoglobin in Adult (the main component in red blood cells transport oxygen to the body) tied CO 200 times stronger than tied O2, hemoglobin of embryo associated with CO even stronger. CO hurt the ability of transporting O2 of embryo caused lack of oxygen in smoking mothers.
– The increase in the concentration of epinephrine and other chemicals of body by nicotine stimulated also effect reducing blood flow to the embryo.
– Smoking also causes harmful effects to the fetus, nicotine can go through the placenta increases blood pressure and affects the ability of fetal performed breathing and movements (frequency of breathing motion is an evaluation index health status of the fetus).
– Placenta itself is also adversely affected by tobacco. Women who smoke or peeling placenta cause bleeding in the mother and died in fetus
Rupture of membranes: In those who smoke usually ruptured membranes earlier than in people who do not smoke.. Rupture of membranes is dangerous because it “opens the door” for bacteria to penetrate the sterile environment of the fetus causes an infection that can threaten the life of the fetus.
Miscarry: According to the American Gynecology and Obstetrics Associations, pregnant women smoke a package/day, the rate of premature births is higher than 20% compared to women who did not smoke. The premature births (under 37 weeks) often encounter dangerous complications can be fatal.
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3. Complications of gynecological
Smoke effects on reproductive organs of women when pregnant and not pregnant; serious consequences of tobacco are common in menopause and cause early menopause. Smoking causes these destruction is by lowering estrogen levels in a woman’s body. Smoking also increases the risk of cervical cancer.
Smoking causes premature menopause: The main reason leading to early menopause is because smoking reduces the level of estrogen in women’s body. All women aged 40 years of age estrogen decreased slowly and then rapidly decrease at menopause. Menopause when the woman does not produce enough hormones to maintain the menstrual cycle.
As we know estrogen is a normal part of the life of the woman, it also caused some negative effects. The remarkable thing is estrogen protects women against heart disease. This explains why women before menopause, the risk of heart disease is lower than men and why women’s risk of cardiovascular disease is quickly as men after a few years of menopause.
Estrogen also works to protect the body against osteoporosis, the bone thinning condition and easy to broke. In women who smoke risk of spine fractures increased 3 times and the risk of hip fracture increased 2 times.
According to some studies, women smoke have risk of menopause earlier than non-smoking women average is 1.74 years. The researchers said that may be due to several reasons: The first is the effect of nicotine on the central nervous system in a way to influence the secretion of hormones related to menopause. Second is some substance in tobacco affects the liver releases the hormones increases estrogen decomposition. Mechanisms occur in women who are not seriously addicted. The women treated with estrogen replacement, the smoke increases the incidence of drug decomposition. However, the experts do not recommend that people who smoke should use higher dose to compensate. The other study found that smoking increases the activity of the adrenal glands. Then this line produces more male hormones to make early menopause.
Other theories about the causes of early menopause in smokers is caused by substances in tobacco called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons destroy ovum in the ovaries, thus making early menopause. Smoking can increase the frequency of hot flashes frequently happen in premenopausal women; this is especially true in skinny women. (Edit by How To Quit Smoking BLOG)